Piccinini lute made by Fred Keet Medemblik 2002
"Panduan Theorbo" made in 1595 by Wendalin Tieffenbrucker
In parallel with these developments in the solo lute, the late 16th century also saw the development of lutes for accompanying voices and other instruments. According to Piccinini (1623), the chitarrone was originally a bass lute tuned to a much higher pitch to increase its brilliance. The first course (and eventually the second as well) had to be tuned an octave lower than normal because the strings were not strong enough to be tuned to such a high pitch on such a large instrument. Further improvements in bass sound and extensions of the bass range required longer strings, and in 1595 an experimental lute was made with a long body and two bridges (this instrument survives in Vienna).